Trends Shaping Education 2016
This OECD publication provides an overview of key economic, social, demographic and technological trends and raises questions about their potential impact on education: globalisation, climate change, migration, inequality, urbanisation, etc. The first edition was published in 2008 and subsequent editions were released in 2010 and 2013. In this new edition, special emphasis was put on the emerging BRICs economies (Brazil, Russian Federation, India and China).
Taxes on trial: How trade deals threaten tax justice
In order to ensure that public services are well funded and that multinationals pay their fair share, States must have the ability to reconsider and change previously set and unfair tax “incentives” granted to corporations – and to change their minds about which industries to subsidise with tax breaks.
Based on the analysis of data and documents on hundreds of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) cases, this research shows that governments' ability to change tax laws and pursue progressive tax policies is inhibited by the ISDS system, enshrined in thousands of free trade and investment agreements across the globe. It reveals that foreign investors have already sued at least 24 countries over tax-related disputes - including several cases where companies have used this system to successfully challenge - and lower - their tax bills.
Evidence presented in the report also shows that tax-related ‘carve-out’ clauses in trade and investment treaties to limit ability of corporations and other investors to sue States over such disputes doesn’t necessarily prevent taxes being challenged. Even the mere threat of an expensive ISDS case can be as powerful as actually filing one, an unknown number of disputes being resolved before a case is ever formally led.
The author finally recalls that ISDS is a one-way system: no comparable mechanism for states to hold foreign investors to account for their actions exists at the moment.
National Sheets on Education Budget in Europe 2015
This annual Eurydice publication compares national education planned budgets at constant 2014 prices (i.e. taking into account the rise in prices that took place in 2015).
It reveals that more than half of the countries/regions – for which data are available and comparable – increased their education budget by more than 1 % between 2014 and 2015. Seven countries (Spain, Latvia, Hungary, Malta, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden) registered an increase higher than 5 %.
Nevertheless, four countries/regions decreased their education budget by more than 1 % between 2014 and 2015: Belgium (German-speaking Community), Greece, Slovenia and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland).
Rights-Based Responses to Non-State Education Provision: A Tentative Typology and some Critical Reflections
The author offers a classification of eleven types of non-State provision (e.g. community initiatives, for-profit, faith-based, etc) and identify for each category, possible responses - both short and long-term - to advance the right to education in each situation.
Education at a Glance 2015 - OECD Indicators
This year's Education at a Glance report emphasizes the impact of the economic crisis on education and teachers' working conditions. Building upon existing quantitative data from OECD’s Indicators of Educational Systems (INES) and qualitative date from its Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), it reveals how austerity measures and budgetary cuts have negatively impacted public spending in education and in particular, teachers' remuneration and access to professional development. In addition to that, the ageing teaching workforce in OECD countries sheds light on the effect of underinvestment in education: education is not attractive to highly qualified young people. The report also recognizes that larger classes, often correlated to teacher shortages, undermine the quality of education.
Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform
This OECD background report summarises the evidence that underpinned the 2016 International Summit of the Teaching Profession. It develops key topics related to the 2016 theme "Teachers’ professional learning and growth: Creating the conditions to achieve quality teaching for excellent learning outcomes".
It is based on data and comparative analysis from several OECD publications: “How teachers teach and students learn: Strategies for success at school” (forthcoming), Supporting Teacher Professionalism: Insights from TALIS 2013 (2016); TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning (2014); Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment (2013); Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS (2009); and Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (2005).
Right to Education Monitoring Guide
Linking education issues to the right to education promotes accountability: Every country has ratified at least one human rights treaty that guarantees the right to education and the majority of countries protect the right to education in their constitutions. This means that most States can be held legally accountable for violations.
This Guide is designed to help advocates to build a strong case, based on empirical evidence, that there has been a violation of the right to education, by using human rights indicators. Each step of the Guide explains how to select appropriate indicators using the Indicators Selection Tool, how to collect data for each indicator and how to interpret that data from a human rights perspective.
European Higher Education: diverging funding trends in 2015
The European University association released its annual Public Funding Observatory report 2015. This year’s edition points out worrying signals from Northern Europe, in particular Denmark and Finland, where new governments have embarked on cost-cutting programmes for the sector.
The 2015 Observatory also corroborates the highly contrasted situation of universities throughout Europe, with long-lasting disinvestment in countries such as Croatia, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Serbia and Spain, while for others the main challenge is to maintain the level of funding per student, considering large increases in the student population (among which Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany). The report also notes an increasingly common narrative about efficiency in a context of changing funding models.
International Instruments on the Right to Education and the Role of Private Actors
The Right to Education project has published an exhaustive list of international and regional legal instruments related to the right to education and the role of private actors in education. The publication refers to the specific paragraphs dealing with these issues for each instrument.
Teachers' and School heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe 2013/14
This annual Eurydice report contains national descriptions and a comparative overview on teachers and school heads' salaries in Europe. Although a majority of European countries registered an increase in teachers’ statutory salaries in 2013/14, the impact of austerity measures adopted during the economic crisis continues to be felt on teachers' purchasing power in 2014.
If you don't understand, how can you learn?
This new GEM policy paper, released for the International Mother Language Day 2016, reveals that as much as 40% of the global population does not have access to education in a language they speak or understand. The challenges are most prevalent in regions where linguistic diversity is greatest such as in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia and the Pacific.
The paper argues that being taught in a language other than their own can negatively impact children’s learning. According to evidence presented in the report, at least six years of mother tongue instruction is needed to reduce learning gaps for minority language speakers. It shows the importance of teacher training and inclusive supporting materials to improve the learning experience of these children, and provide them with a resilient path of achievement in life.
Poverty and gender amplify educational disadvantages linked to ethnicity and language. With a new global education agenda that prioritizes equity and lifelong learning for all, the policy of respecting language rights is essential and deserves close attention.
An economy for the 1%
The gap between rich and poor is reaching new extremes. The richest 1% have now accumulated more wealth than the rest of the world put together. This OXFAM report looks into how and why this has happened and provides new evidence of this unprecedented inequality crisis.
It shows how increasing returns to capital, reinforced by tax avoidance and governments reducing taxes on capital gains, have been one of the key trends underlying this huge concentration of wealth and incomes. In most countries, workers are capturing less and less of the gains from growth. Tax havens and the global industry of tax avoidance, which has blossomed over recent decades, threatens welfare states in the rich world and denies poor countries the resources they need to tackle poverty and expand their health and education systems.
Who wants to become a teacher ?
This 58th issue of PISA In Focus reveals that across 60 education systems, only 5% of 15-year-old students expect to work as teachers. This percentage varies widely across countries and the teaching profession is particularly unattractive in countries like Estonia, Germany, Hungary and Italy. PISA data also shows that, on average, a higher percentage of students expects to work as teachers in countries where teachers’ salaries are higher.
In the spirit of the 1996 publication, "Learning: The treasure within", also known as the ‘Delors report’, Rethinking Education provides reflections on the education needed in the 21st century. The publication which includes contributions from Education International, reaffirms a humanistic approach to education in the context of important societal transformations and focuses on social justice, equity and sustainable development. It also stresses the important role of teachers and educators as change agents in education, considered as one of the "most powerful transformative force".
Youth advocacy toolkit for the right to education
The Toolkit, produced in partnership with Plan International, A World at School and the GEFI Youth Advocacy Group, with the support from UNESCO and UNICEF, was developed for young people and helps children and youth to effectively advocate for their right to an education.