Profiting from the Poor: The Emergence of Multinational Edu-Businesses in Hyderabad, India
The report co-authored by Kamat S., Spreen C.A. and Jonnalagadda I. lays out the broad underpinnings of the corporate interests in for-profit education and how these efforts undermine public education as a fundamental human right. It provides a detailed understanding of how the commercialisation of education through scalable chains of schools and selling educational products and services unfolds on the ground in Hyderabad. This study of the expansive and growing private education sector in India revealed a complex well-networked assemblage of global actors that are invested in the business of education privatisation and who stand to make a considerable profit from it. Two actors that stand out as having launched the low-fee private schools (lfps) ‘movement’ in India are James Tooley (professor of education policy at Newcastle University, uk) and the global corporation, Pearson. This report critically assesses these multinational actors’ claims to make schooling for the poor profitable while simultaneously promising quality education. It demonstrates that, despite expectations, the schools have not been profitable and they have also failed to deliver anything close to quality education.
The World Bank’s Doublespeak on Teachers – An analysis of 10 years
During the last few decades, the World Bank has become a central actor in shaping the global education policy agenda and is increasingly involved in education to the point of becoming the largest supplier of external funding to the sector. Its growing capacity to shape policy goes far beyond its lending activity and involves a signi cant “ideational” power also in uencing educational issues such learning outcomes, education quality and teacher related issues.
This review of the World Bank’s activity around teachers in the last ten years reveals a significant disconnection between, on the one hand, the policy preferences that predominate in the Bank’s publications on teachers and, on the other hand, the teachers’ related policies that the Bank effectively supports through its lending operations.
Corporatised education in the Philippines: Pearson, Ayala Corporation and the emergence of Affordable Private Education Centers (APEC)
This paper examines how, why, and with what consequences, corporate-led privatisations in Philippine education are taking shape, through an analysis of Affordable Private Education Centers (APEC). APEC is a for-profit chain of low-fee private schools (LFPS) established through a joint venture between two major multinational corporations, Pearson Plc and the Ayala Group. With the implementation of the new “K-12” system the Department of Education (DepED) plans to grow public-private partnerships and the education services industry in the Philippines so that private enterprise can expand private high school provision and help absorb excess demand. APEC, and its shareholders, plan to capitalise on this situation through its corporately owned and managed chain of for-profit high schools that aim to serve “economically disadvantaged” Filipino youth who are charged nominally “low-fees.”
The edu-business model implemented by APEC involves a number of cost-cutting techniques designed to minimise production costs, while increasing rates of profitability, which have had undesirable effects on teaching and learning. APEC also aims to (re)produce the human labour required by Ayala and other multinational companies by aligning its educational services with the labour needs of industry. By “reverse-engineering” its curriculum, APEC intends to produce graduates of a particular disposition with specific skills, values, and knowledge that can be employed in the global labour market. In particular, APEC intends to address the skill shortage in business process outsourcing (BPO) and call center industries in the Philippines.
This report aims to contribute to global debates regarding low-fee private schools as well as corporate involvement and infuence in efforts to expand access to education.
Creating a Supportive Working Environment in European Higher Education
In this study, academics across nine countries in Europe identified a number of key issues that impacted upon their working environment. These included the impact of decreased funding; the difficulties experienced in forming supportive relationships; negative experiences of academic life in the initial years; a deterioration in working conditions; the challenges posed by the Bologna Process; the changing demands of the teaching and research roles; their lack of influence and their non-involvement in decision-making processes within their institutions.
EI Report to the Committee of Experts on the Application of the Recommendation concerning Teachers (CEART)
The Committee of Experts on the Application of the Recommendation concerning Teachers (CEART) is a joint committee of the ILO and UNESCO composed of 12 Experts. It meets every three years and is charged with monitoring the implementation of the 1966 ILO/UNESCO Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers and the 1997 UNESCO Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel. Every three years, EI makes a submission to CEART on the status of teachers based on a special survey and other materials reflecting the experience of teachers and their trade unions.
Human Rights and Values in Education
This paper was developed to provide context and background for the Education International Baltic Symposium on Human Rights and Values in Education which took place from 7 to 8 June 2016 in Riga, Latvia.
It is structured in two parts. The first part explores what we mean by human rights education. It presents the normative basis for human rights education, including laws, standards and policies on education for human rights and democratic citizenship at international and regional levels.
The second part examines the implications and application of human rights education, or a rights based approach to education, in principle and practice, focusing on the following specific areas: teacher training, professional development and support; teaching and learning practices and processes; inclusive curriculums and a whole school approach to human rights.
The appendices include a list of key international and regional institutions and organizations that have developed and implemented policies and programmes for human rights education, and the Education International resolution on the promotion and protection of standards and values in the world.
Discussion Paper: Value-added measurement or modelling (VAM)
This discussion paper reviews the policy instrument of value-added measurement or modelling (VAM) and the implications the instrument has for teaching and learning
in a global context. VAM is based on the assumption that it is possible to create adequately complex statistical models that capture the essential and universal factors in what makes some schools and teachers more effective than others without sacrificing the complexity of education, teaching and learning.
The paper unfolds the debates and critique raised against VAM. After a brief account of the origins, basic ideas and current use of VAM globally, four particular concerns related to VAM are discussed: 1/a technical critique of the statistical modelling underlying VAM; 2/a broader critique on the constitutive e ects of VAM on education and its objectives; 3/the sidelining of teachers in the debate on evaluation of school and teacher performance; and 4/the promotion of VAM by private enterprises and major development agencies in low- and middle income countries.
The reductionism of VAM has proved to have some appeal as a simple solution to fix complex realities. Teacher unions should be aware of the characteristics of the policy instrument. In particular, education systems in low-income countries might prove vulnerable in the coming years as international donors and for-profit enterprises appear to be endorsing VAM as a means to raise school and teacher quality in spite of the lack of evidence and the extensive critique raised against the instrument.
Privatisation in Early Childhood Education (PECE) - An Explorative Study on Impacts and Implications
This explorative study reveals a global trend towards increasing privatisation in Early Childhood Education (ECE), threatening to overshadow public ECE. Based on a qualitative inquiry targeting ECE practitioners and union representatives in 14 countries, it gathers practice-based evidence of the impact of privatisation in Early Childhood Education (ECE) on a variety of aspects such as access to ECE, quality of education, equity and conditions of service for teaching and support staff. The outcomes of the research and the recommendations formulated by the authors can pave the way for EI, its affiliates and partners’ advocacy for public provision of ECE and the need to regulate the private ECE sector.
The Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession
This report is based on an extensive survey (responses from 73 Education International (EI) member organisations from all regions). It reveals the threats to the status of teachers from misguided “reforms” leading to precarious working conditions for teachers and education workers and curbing teachers' professional development, professional autonomy, social dialogue, and involvement in decision-making. Given the intimate relationship between teaching conditions and learning conditions; those same threats endanger the provision of quality education and education as a public good.
Teaching Around the World: What Can TALIS Tell Us?
The Teaching and Learning International Survey of 2013 (TALIS)—representing the views of teachers and principals in lower secondary schools from 34 jurisdictions around the world—tells us a great deal about the conditions for teaching in different countries today and what these may mean for the future of the teaching force and the quality of teaching.
The report "Teaching Around the World: What Can TALIS Tell Us?" commissioned by EI, underlines the connection between teachers’ self-efficacy, job satisfaction and professional collaboration.
Collaborative and effective professional learning opportunities were found to be associated with teachers’ practices, especially with respect to those that encourage what are commonly referred to as “21st century skills” — problem solving, inquiry, critical thinking, and collaboration, for example.
While most teachers agreed that they experienced "a collaborative school culture characterized by mutual support", there were noticeable differences in the degree to which principals and teachers reported this kind of climate. In recent years, a number of nations have placed more emphasis on teacher appraisal.
The data in TALIS 2013 provide important insights into the policies that can support and strengthen teaching and lead to high-quality learning for students.
ETUCE reports on the “State of Funding in Education, Teachers’ working conditions and Trade union actions, Social dialogue and Collective bargaining” in Europe
The EI European region, ETUCE, has released 2 Survey Reports on the “State of Funding in Education, Teachers’ working conditions and Trade union actions, Social dialogue and Collective bargaining” in Central and Eastern European countries and in Western European countries. The reports are a comprehensive ‘state of play’ which combines the outcomes of eight years of economic crisis and fiscal consolidation measures on public finance of education systems, teachers’ working conditions, the role of teacher unions, and the major trends in social dialogue and collective bargaining. The analysis is based on responses from 65 member organisations in 39 European countries (23 being EU countries).
It reveals that the impact of austerity programmes is, for the most part, not over and that education budgets remain under pressure, affecting salaries and benefits of education workers, their working conditions and the availability and quality of training and professional development. It also shows that national reforms have led to increased privatisation, especially in Central and Eastern european countries, which experienced a rise in the number of privately-funded education institutions, especially in early childhood and higher education.
Briefing: The potential impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on education
This briefing note looks into the potential impacts of the TPP for the education sector based on the text released on 5 November 2015.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a comprehensive trade and investment agreement covering 40% of the global economy. The TPP was concluded on 5th October 2015 after more than 5 years of secret negotiations. The following countries are involved: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States and Vietnam.
Teachers Assessing Education For All - Perspectives From the Classroom
This report collates the outcomes of a global effort to engage teachers and education support personnel in a critical reflection on the EFA movement and goals. It shares the experiences and perspectives of a diverse group of professionals, working in very different contexts around the world, who share one common goal: delivering quality education for all. It aims to capture the essence of the rich consultations and focus groups’ discussions held with EI member organisations from 63 countries and share the views of 13,500 teachers and education support personnel surveyed. As the voice of education workers worldwide, EI considers it essential to draw on their expertise and experience in order to contribute to shaping the future of EFA.
Pearson and PALF: the Mutating Giant
In their latest work, renowned researchers Carolina Junemann and Stephen J. Ball present a compelling read for anyone concerned about the right of every child to a free quality public education. They reveal that there is an ever-growing concern associated with the continual rise of the commercialisation and privatisation in and of education driven by large global EDU-businesses, the operations of which are being allowed, facilitated and at times promoted by governments.
Tax Justice: A resource guide for education unions
This online resource guide is designed to help Education International (EI) affiliates be better informed about what advancements are being made by the tax justice movement, and what they can do in their own countries to ensure adequate funding of public services.
Around the world, tax havens, tax avoidance and corruption of multinational corporations are depriving governments every year of hundreds of billions of dollars desperately needed to pay for schools, materials and teachers. By removing tax havens, preventing harmful tax incentives, and by implementing progressive tax systems, governments can tap the resources needed to finance equitable quality education systems that are truly accessible to all.
Education International believes it is time for international action to reform national, regional and international tax systems to ensure that multinational corporations pay their fair share of tax so that governments have the resources needed to fund quality public services, including quality education.